Important topics GS 3

  1. Internationalization of Indian rupee:
  2. 5G Technology
  3. Millets
  4. Wind power in India.
  5. Battery technology in India.
  6. How to reduce methane emissions from livestock
  7. Brain fog after COVID-19
  8. SVAMITVA scheme
  9. Multi model logistics park in India
  10. Climate changes impact on glaciers.
  11. India Australia economic and cooperation
  12. Lone wolf terrorism
  13. Carbon border adjustment mechanism
  14. Micro finance sector in India
  15. Inland waterways in India
  16. Farm mechanization in India
  17. AFSPA 1958
  18. E-pharmacy sector in India
  19. Aquaculture sector
  20. The National Quantum Mission
  21. The National Logistic Portal marine
  22. Thermobaric bomb
  23. The Indian semiconductor industry
  24. Internationalization of Indian rupee:

Relevance of this topic: India is aiming to make the rupee a global currency. RBI is preparing a roadmap towards the Internationalization of the rupee. As it would cause an considerable impact on Indian economy, it is an important topic.
Previous year question:

     Positive aspects:

• Increased Foreign Investment: Internationalization can attract foreign investors who may be more willing to invest in India if they can easily trade and hold the Indian rupee. This can lead to an inflow of foreign capital, boosting economic growth and development.
• Enhanced Global Trade: Internationalization of the rupee can facilitate smoother international trade transactions by reducing currency conversion costs and exchange rate risks. It can encourage international businesses to transact in rupees, making it easier for Indian exporters to negotiate deals and expand their global market presence.
• Improved Monetary Policy Autonomy: With an internationalized currency, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) can have more flexibility in conducting monetary policy. It can better manage exchange rates, control inflation, and stabilize the economy by adjusting interest rates and liquidity operations.
• Strengthened Financial Center: The internationalization of the rupee can contribute to the development of Indian financial markets and transform India into a global financial hub. This can attract foreign financial institutions, boost liquidity, and provide opportunities for domestic firms to access international capital markets more easily.

     Risks associated

• Capital Flight: The internationalization of the rupee can lead to increased capital mobility, allowing investors to easily move their funds in and out of the country. This can pose a risk of capital flight, where investors rapidly withdraw their investments during times of economic uncertainty, putting pressure on the currency and causing instability in the financial system.
• Dependence on Foreign Demand: Internationalization may make the Indian economy more reliant on foreign demand for its currency. If there is a sudden decrease in demand for the rupee, it can lead to a depreciation of the currency, making imports more expensive and potentially impacting the country’s balance of payments.
• Regulatory Challenges: Internationalization requires effective regulatory frameworks to manage cross-border transactions, prevent money laundering, and ensure compliance with international financial regulations. Insufficient regulatory systems can expose the economy to risks such as illicit financial flows, tax evasion, and financial instability.

  1. 5G Technology

Relevance of this topic: 5G infrastructure is increasing with a faster pace in India.(2.7 lakh 5G sites at present).
Previous year question: 1.” Investment in infrastructure is essential for more rapid and inclusive economic growth.” Discuss in the light of India’s experience.(GS3 2021)

  1. How biotechnology can improve the living standard of farmers?(GS-3 2019)

Positives for Indian economy:

• Enhanced Connectivity: 5G technology offers significantly faster data speeds and lower latency compared to previous generations. This can improve connectivity across the country, enabling faster internet access, smoother video streaming, and better overall user experiences. It can also benefit sectors like e-commerce, telemedicine, and education by providing reliable and high-speed connectivity.
• IoT and Smart Cities: 5G networks can support a massive number of connected devices, enabling the Internet of Things (IoT) to flourish. This can lead to the development of smart cities in India, where various devices and systems are interconnected to enhance efficiency, sustainability, and quality of life. Applications like smart grids, traffic management, and public safety can be significantly improved with the deployment of 5G.
• Industry 4.0: 5G technology can play a crucial role in driving India’s digital transformation and Industry 4.0 initiatives. With its high bandwidth and low latency, 5G enables advanced technologies like artificial intelligence, robotics, and automation to operate seamlessly. This can revolutionize manufacturing processes, improve productivity, and foster innovation in various industries.
• Economic Growth: The deployment of 5G networks can stimulate economic growth in India. It can attract investments in infrastructure development, create job opportunities in the telecommunications sector, and drive innovation and entrepreneurship. Furthermore, the increased efficiency and connectivity provided by 5G can boost productivity across industries, contributing to overall economic development.

Challenges in front of Indian economy:

• Infrastructure Development: Implementing 5G requires significant infrastructure investments, including the deployment of new towers and fiber optic networks. This can be a considerable challenge for India, given its vast geographical expanse and existing infrastructure limitations. Ensuring widespread coverage and upgrading existing networks to support 5G can be a complex and costly process.
• Affordability and Accessibility: While 5G technology offers enhanced connectivity, it may also come with higher costs for consumers. The affordability and accessibility of 5G services can be a challenge, especially in a country with a large population and varying income levels. Ensuring that 5G services are accessible to all segments of society will be crucial for inclusive economic growth.
• Digital Divide: Introducing 5G can potentially widen this divide if certain regions or sections of the population are left behind due to inadequate infrastructure or affordability issues. Bridging the digital divide will be essential to prevent further disparities in economic opportunities and access to information.
• Skill Development and Job Displacement: The adoption of 5G technology may lead to changes in the job market, with some roles becoming obsolete and new ones emerging. May lead to seasonal unemployment, structural unemployment. It will be necessary to focus on skill development and retraining programs to ensure that the workforce is equipped to handle the demands of the evolving digital economy. Additionally, there may be concerns about potential job displacement due to automation and AI-driven technologies.

  1. Millets Relevance of this topic: Recently India hosted global millet conference in Delhi.
    Previous year question: What are the present challenges before crop diversification? How do emerging technologies provide an opportunity for crop diversification?(GS-3 2021)

• India is 5th the largest exporters of millets globally, accounting for a significant share of the market. India exported millets worth of $75.46 million in 2022 as against $62.95 million in 2020.
• According to statistics from the Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA), India exported approximately 1.9 million metric tons of millets in the fiscal year 2020-2021.
• The export value of millets from India during the same period was around 1.45 billion Indian Rupees.
• Major export destinations for Indian millets include the United States, Canada, Australia, Saudi Arabia, and various African countries.
• Millets, such as pearl millet, finger millet, foxtail millet, and sorghum, offer a diverse range of crop options in Indian agriculture. They provide an alternative to traditional crops like rice and wheat, increasing crop diversity and reducing the risk of crop failure.
• Millets are known for their ability to thrive in harsh and dry conditions, making them well-suited for cultivation in arid and semi-arid regions of India. Their tolerance to drought, heat, and low-input farming systems makes them a valuable resource in combating climate change.
• Millets are highly nutritious, rich in dietary fiber, protein, vitamins, and minerals. Their inclusion in the diet can contribute to addressing malnutrition and improving public health, especially in rural areas where access to diverse and nutritious food is limited.
• Cultivating millets can be economically beneficial for farmers. Millets have a lower input cost compared to crops like rice and wheat, requiring less water, fertilizer, and pesticides. This makes them a cost-effective option for small-scale farmers, potentially increasing their income.

  1. Wind power in India.

Relevance of this topic: Soon country’s 1st offshore wind farm will be launched in southern Tamil Nadu. This sector proposes 1.5 lakh jobs by 2030.
Previous year question: Describe the benefits of deriving electric energy from sunlight in contrast to the conventional energy generation. What are the initiatives offered by our government for this purpose?(GS-3 2020)

• India is world’s 5th largest producers of wind power, with a rapidly growing capacity.
• As on June 2023, India’s total installed wind power capacity reached approximately 43.773 (GW).
• Wind power contributes to around 10% of India’s total installed power capacity.
• The state of Gujarat has the highest installed wind power capacity in India, followed by Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andhra radesh.
• In the fiscal year 2022, India added around 71,814 million units of electricity by wind power , marking a significant growth compared to previous years.

  1. Battery technology in India.

Relevance of this topic: EV sales are booming with 154% increase in sales as compared to 2019.
Previous year question: 1.Describe the benefits of deriving electric energy from sunlight in contrast to the conventional energy generation. What are the initiatives offered by our government for this purpose?(GS-3 2020)

  1. Do you think India will meet 50% of its energy needs from renewable energy by 2030? Justify your answer. How will the shift of subsidies from fossil fuels to renewables help achieve the above objective? Explain.(GS-3 2022).

• The demand for electric vehicles in India is increasing, driving the need for advanced battery technology. According to the Society of Manufacturers of Electric Vehicles (SMEV), EV sales in India reached 12,43258, making 154% year on year growth over FY2021-22.
• India is actively expanding its battery manufacturing capabilities. The country’s battery production capacity is expected to reach 50 gigawatt-hours (GWh) by 2022, according to the India Energy Storage Alliance (IESA).
• The Indian government has allocated significant funds to promote battery manufacturing. Under the FAME II scheme, INR 10,000 has been allocated for the development and manufacturing of advanced batteries.
• Lithium-ion batteries are currently the most widely used battery technology in India. According to a report by NITI Aayog, lithium-ion batteries are expected to dominate the Indian EV market with a share of around 80% by 2030.
• To support the adoption of electric vehicles, India is expanding its charging infrastructure. As of 2023, there were over 6586 public EV charging stations in the country.
• Indian companies and research institutions are actively engaged in battery technology research and development. For example, the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has developed indigenous lithium-ion battery technology for space applications, which has the potential for commercial use as well.

  1. How to reduce methane emissions from livestock

Relevance of this topic: livestock has been recognized as a major contributor to greenhoiuse gases. Livestock accounts for around 63% of all emissions from the agriculture sector in India.

 Previous year question: Discuss global warming and mention its effects on the global climate. Explain the control measures to bring down the level of greenhouse gases which cause global warming , in the light of the hyoto protocol 1997.(GS -3 2022)

• Improve livestock diets: Implementing balanced and nutrient-rich diets can optimize digestion, reduce methane production, and improve overall animal health. This can be achieved by incorporating quality forage, optimizing feed ratios, and minimizing excessive protein intake.
• Adjust feeding practices: Implementing techniques such as controlled grazing, rotational grazing, or strip grazing can help manage pasture utilization and minimize the time animals spend on one area. This reduces the accumulation of manure and the subsequent methane emissions.
• Capture and utilize methane: Implementing anaerobic digestion systems or biogas plants can capture methane emissions from livestock manure and convert it into usable energy. This not only reduces methane emissions but also provides a renewable energy source.
• Manure management: Proper management of livestock manure can significantly reduce methane emissions. Techniques such as composting, solid-liquid separation, or anaerobic digestion can help reduce methane emissions from manure storage and handling.
• Improve breeding and genetics: Selecting breeding stock that is more efficient in converting feed to meat or milk can help reduce overall methane emissions from livestock. Breeding programs focused on methane reduction can be implemented to breed animals with lower methane production traits.

  1. Brain fog after COVID-19

Relevance of this topic: Some people has been experiencing Brian fog while recovering from COVID-19.
Previous year question: What is the basic principle behind vaccine development? How do vaccines work? What approaches were adopted by the Indian vaccine manufactures to produce COVID-19 Vaccines?(GS-3 2022).

• Brain fog is a common symptom experienced by individuals recovering from COVID-19.
• It can manifest as difficulties with concentration, memory, confusion, and mental fatigue.
• The exact cause of brain fog after COVID-19 is not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to the inflammatory response and impact on the central nervous system.
• Recovery from brain fog varies from person to person and can take time. Strategies to improve cognitive function include getting enough rest and sleep, engaging in mental stimulation activities, maintaining a healthy diet, staying physically active, and managing stress levels.

  1. SVAMITVA scheme

Relevance of this topic: PM handed over SVAMITVA property card to select beneficiaries , symbolizing the attainment of a milestone of 1.25 core property cards distribution under SVAMITVA scheme in the country.
Previous year question: How did land reform in some parts of the country help to improve the socio-economic conditions of marginal and small farmers?(GS-3 2021)

• The SVAMITVA (Survey of Villages and Mapping with Improvised Technology in Village Areas) scheme is an initiative launched by the Government of India. It aims to provide an integrated property validation solution in rural areas by conducting a survey and mapping of rural inhabited lands using modern technology such as drones, satellites, and surveying techniques.
• The main objective of the SVAMITVA scheme is to promote rural planning, development, and good governance by ensuring clarity of property rights in rural areas. It seeks to empower rural landowners by providing them with property ownership documents, which can be used as a financial asset for accessing credit and other benefits.
• Under the scheme, cadastral mapping of rural areas is conducted to create a record of property ownership. This helps in resolving property disputes, preventing encroachments, and facilitating planned socio-economic development in rural regions. The scheme also aims to digitize land records and establish a comprehensive land information management system.
• The SVAMITVA scheme is implemented in collaboration with various state governments and involves the active participation of local authorities, landowners, and other stakeholders. It is expected to bring transparency, accountability, and efficiency to the land administration system in rural areas of India.
• The SVAMITVA scheme is a government initiative aimed at surveying and mapping rural inhabited lands in India to provide property ownership documents, promote rural planning and development, and empower rural landowners.

  1. Multi model logistics park in India

Relevance of this topic: Center has proposed construction for Maharashtra’s 1st multi model logistic park at Nagpur. Multi model logistics park has the potential to reduce current logistics cosrs from 14% of GDP to less than 10% .

  Previous year question: .” Investment in infrastructure is essential for more rapid and inclusive economic growth.” Discuss in the light of India’s experience.(GS3 2021)

• India has been actively developing multimodal logistics parks as part of its efforts to enhance its logistics infrastructure and promote efficient movement of goods across different transportation modes. These parks, also known as Integrated Freight Complexes (IFCs), are designed to serve as comprehensive logistics hubs that integrate various modes of transport, including road, rail, air, and waterways.
• The project multi model logistics parks under Bharat Mala scheme has a concession period of 45 years. Recently it was expanded for further 30 years.
• The development of multimodal logistics parks in India aims to address the challenges of congestion, inefficiency, and high logistics costs. These parks provide facilities such as container yards, warehouses, cold storage, customs clearance centers, rail and road connectivity, and other value-added services. They are strategically located near major industrial and consumption centers to facilitate smooth and cost-effective movement of goods.
• The Indian government has launched various initiatives and policies to encourage the development of multimodal logistics parks. For instance, the Logistics Parks Policy, the Bharatmala Pariyojana, and the Sagarmala Programme have been introduced to promote the creation of these parks and improve the overall logistics infrastructure in the country.

Some challenges:
• Land acquisition: Acquiring large tracts of land for setting up logistics parks can be a complex and time-consuming process. It often involves dealing with multiple stakeholders, including private landowners, government agencies, and local communities.
• Infrastructure development: Establishing robust infrastructure within logistics parks, such as road and rail connectivity, warehousing facilities, and customs clearance centers, requires significant investment. Ensuring timely and efficient construction of these facilities can be a challenge.
• Regulatory hurdles: Navigating through complex regulatory frameworks and obtaining necessary approvals and clearances from multiple government departments can pose challenges for developers and investors.
• Coordination among stakeholders: Successful operation of multimodal logistics parks requires effective coordination among various stakeholders, including logistics service providers, government agencies, and private enterprises. Ensuring seamless integration and collaboration among these entities can be a challenge.

  1. Climate changes impact on glaciers.

Relevance of this topic: 16 Asian countries at risk as climate change threatens water supplies.

Previous year question: Discuss the recent measures initiated in disaster management by the government of India departing from the earlier reactive approach.(GS -3 2020).

• Glaciers are highly sensitive to climate change and are experiencing significant impacts worldwide. Rising global temperatures have led to the accelerated melting of glaciers, causing them to shrink in size and volume.
• Climate change affects glaciers through multiple mechanisms. Increased temperatures lead to the direct melting of glaciers, while changes in precipitation patterns can alter the balance between accumulation and ablation (melting and sublimation). This disrupts the natural equilibrium of glaciers, resulting in their retreat.
• The loss of glaciers has far-reaching consequences. Glaciers act as natural reservoirs, storing water that is released slowly over time, contributing to river flows during dry periods. As glaciers melt, this water supply diminishes, impacting downstream water availability for agriculture, drinking water, and hydropower generation.
• Glacier retreat: Since the early 20th century, glaciers worldwide have been retreating at an accelerated rate. It is estimated that glaciers have lost over 9,000 billion metric tons of ice between 1961 and 2016.
• Glacier shrinkage: The average rate of glacier shrinkage has more than doubled since the 1980s. It is estimated that glaciers are currently losing around 220 billion metric tons of ice per year.
• Glacier volume loss: The volume of glaciers globally has decreased by approximately 18% between 1961 and 2016. This reduction in volume significantly contributes to rising sea levels.
• Sea-level rise: Glacial meltwater is a significant contributor to sea-level rise. It is estimated that glaciers have contributed about 30% of the observed global sea-level rise between 1961 and 2022.
• Regional variations: Glaciers in certain regions are experiencing more rapid changes. For example, glaciers in the European Alps have lost about half of their ice since the mid-19th century, while glaciers in the Arctic have been shrinking rapidly.

  1. India Australia economic and cooperation

Relevance of this topic: India goods on all tariff lines to get access to Australian market with zero customs duty.

Previous year question: How is S-400 air defense system technically superior to any other system presently available in the world?(GS-3 2021)

• Reduction of Tariffs: The India-Australia Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement (CECA) aims to reduce or eliminate tariffs on a wide range of goods traded between the two countries. This helps to lower the cost of imports and exports, making trade more competitive and beneficial for businesses.
• Trade in Services: The CECA also covers trade in services, facilitating the movement of professionals and skilled workers between India and Australia. This promotes collaboration and exchange of expertise in various sectors such as IT, healthcare, education, and tourism. The total two-way merchandise trade between India and Australia in 2022 was valued at 48.4 billion USD.
• Investment Promotion: The agreement includes provisions to promote and protect investment between India and Australia. It provides a stable and transparent framework for businesses to invest in each other’s countries, encouraging bilateral investment flows and fostering economic growth. The stock of Australian investment in India was valued at AUD 15.5 billion in 2020, while Indian investment in Australia was valued at AUD 18.2 billion.
• Intellectual Property Rights: The CECA addresses intellectual property rights, ensuring that both countries provide adequate protection and enforcement mechanisms. This promotes innovation, technology transfer, and collaboration in areas of research and development.
• Cooperation in Agriculture: India and Australia have been exploring opportunities for cooperation in the agriculture sector, including knowledge sharing, research collaboration, and trade in agricultural products. This helps to enhance productivity, food security, and sustainability in both countries.

  1. Lone wolf terrorism

Relevance of this topic: Recently lone wolf terrorism is again gaining prominence.

Previous year question: Analyze the complexity and intensity of terrorism, its causes, linkages and obnoxious nexus. Also suggest measures required to be taken to eradicate the menace of terrorism.(GS-3 2021).

• Lone wolf terrorism refers to acts of violence committed by individuals who operate independently, without direct affiliation or guidance from established terrorist organizations. These individuals carry out attacks motivated by their own extremist ideologies or personal grievances. Lone wolf terrorists often plan and execute their actions alone, making it difficult for authorities to detect and prevent their activities.
• Lone wolf terrorism poses a unique challenge for law enforcement and counterterrorism efforts, as these individuals may not have the same patterns of communication or engagement that are typically associated with organized terrorist groups. Their actions can be unpredictable and difficult to anticipate, making it challenging to implement effective preventive measures.
• Counterterrorism strategies often focus on intelligence gathering, monitoring online activities, and raising public awareness to identify and report suspicious behavior. Additionally, efforts are made to address the underlying causes of radicalization and extremism, aiming to prevent individuals from becoming radicalized in the first place.

  1. Carbon border adjustment mechanism
  2. Relevance of this topic: Recently India opposed CBAM proposed by European Union in 27th (COP) in Sharm El Sheikh.
  3. Previous year question: Discuss in detail the photochemical smog emphasizing its formation, effects and mitigation. Explain the 1999 Gothenburg protocol.(GS-3 2022).
  4. Recently India opposed CBAM proposed by European Union in 27th (COP) in Sharm El Sheikh.
  5. A carbon border adjustment mechanism (CBAM) is a policy tool that aims to address the issue of carbon leakage and ensure a level playing field for industries in the context of climate change mitigation efforts. It involves imposing a carbon price on imported goods based on their carbon footprint, similar to the domestic carbon pricing systems in place.
  6. The rationale behind a CBAM is to prevent “carbon leakage,” which occurs when industries relocate their production to countries with less stringent climate policies, resulting in increased emissions in those countries and a loss of competitiveness for industries in countries with stronger climate regulations. By applying a carbon price to imports, a CBAM seeks to internalize the carbon cost and create a more equitable global market.
  7. Challenges:
  8. One key challenge is accurately assessing the carbon footprint of imported goods, as it requires transparent and reliable data on emissions along the entire supply chain. Harmonizing methodologies and establishing robust verification systems will be essential to ensure the effectiveness and credibility of a CBAM.
  9. Another challenge is addressing potential trade disputes and ensuring compliance with international trade rules. To mitigate these concerns, a CBAM should be designed in a way that is consistent with World Trade Organization (WTO) principles and compatible with existing international trade agreements.
  10. While a CBAM can be an effective tool for aligning trade and climate objectives, its successful implementation requires international cooperation and coordination. It should be part of a broader strategy that includes domestic climate policies, international climate agreements, and efforts to promote clean technology transfer and capacity building.
  11. Micro finance sector in India
  12. Relevance of this topic: Microfinance sector post 21% growth in 2023.
  13. Previous year question: Is inclusive growth possible under market economy? State the significance of financial inclusion in achieving economic growth in India.(GS-3 2022).
  14. Number of Microfinance Institutions (MFIs): India has a large number of MFIs operating in the country. As of March 2020, there were around 1,576 registered MFIs in India.
  15. Total Microfinance Borrowers: The number of microfinance borrowers has been steadily increasing over the years. As of March 2022, there were approximately 6.4 crore active borrowers in the microfinance sector in India.
  16. Rural Focus: Microfinance institutions in India primarily target rural areas, where access to formal financial services is limited. Around 85% of microfinance borrowers are based in rural regions.
  17. Women Empowerment: Microfinance has played a crucial role in empowering women in India. It is estimated that around 99% of microfinance borrowers are women, helping them gain financial independence and contribute to their households’ economic well-being.
  18. Non-Performing Assets (NPAs): The microfinance sector in India has faced challenges related to non-performing assets. As of March 2022, the gross NPA ratio of the microfinance sector stood at around 9.28%.
  19. Inland waterways in India
  20. Relevance of this topic: Centre plans 12,000 crore Brahmani inland waterway in Odisha.
  21. Previous year question: “Investment in infrastructure is essential for more rapid and inclusive economic growth.” Discuss in the light of India’s experience.(GS-3 2021).
  22.  India has an extensive network of inland waterways. Currently, there are about 20,275 kilometers of navigable waterways in the country.
  23. The Government of India has designated several waterways as National Waterways (NWs). Currently, there are 6 operational National Waterways in India, including NW-1 (River Ganga), NW-2 (River Brahmaputra), NW-3 (West Coast Canal), NW-4 (River Godavari), NW-5 (River Krishna), and NW-6 (River Barak).
  24. Inland waterways play a crucial role in transporting cargo across the country. In 2019-2020, approximately 72.31 million tonnes of cargo was transported through inland waterways in India. In 2022 itself 11 million metric tonnes of cargo was transported.
  25. The Government of India has recognized the potential of inland waterways and aims to develop more waterways for efficient transportation. The Jal Marg Vikas Project on NW-1 (River Ganga) is one such initiative, aiming to enhance navigation capacity and connectivity.
  26. Developing and utilizing inland waterways can bring significant economic benefits. It can reduce transportation costs, ease congestion on roads and railways, and promote trade and commerce, especially for bulk cargo.
  27. Inland waterways are considered a relatively eco-friendly mode of transportation as they have lower carbon emissions compared to road and rail transport. Utilizing waterways can help reduce the carbon footprint of transportation in India.
  28. 16. Farm mechanization in India
  29. Relevance of this topic: Parliamentary panel suggests usage of tiny robots and AI for farm operations to deal with problems of farmers.
  30. Previous year question: What are the challenges and opportunities of food processing sector in the country? How can income of the farmers be substantially increased by encouraging food processing?(GS-3 2020).
  31. Tractor Population: India has one of the largest tractor populations in the world. As of 2019, the total number of tractors in the country was around 8.5 million. In 2022 tractor production crossed 1 million mark for 2nd consecutive year.
  32. Mechanization Level: The level of farm mechanization in India varies across different regions. On average, the mechanization level in India stands at around 40-45%. However, it is higher in states like Punjab, Haryana, and Gujarat, where it can reach up to 95%.
  33. Power Tillers: Power tillers are widely used for land preparation and cultivation in smaller farms. India has a significant number of power tillers, with an estimated count of around 750,000 units.
  34. Harvesters: The adoption of combine harvesters in India has been growing steadily. As of 2019, there were approximately 65,000 combine harvesters in the country. In 2022, harvester market was valued a $ 92.09 million.
  35. Government Initiatives: The Government of India has taken various initiatives to promote farm mechanization. These include subsidies and financial assistance for purchasing agricultural machinery and equipment, setting up custom hiring centers, and creating awareness about the benefits of mechanization.
  36. Challenges: Despite the progress in farm mechanization, there are still challenges to overcome. These include the high cost of machinery, limited access to credit for small farmers, lack of awareness and technical knowledge, and the need for better infrastructure to support mechanized farming.
  37. Organic farming
  38. Relevance of this topic: The government of Tamil Nadu has issued organic farming policy aimed at strengthening the organic certification system.
  39. Previous year question: How far is integrated farming system helpful in sustaining agricultural production?(GS -3 2019)
  40. Organic farming land: As of 2022, India had a total of 5.91 million hectares of certified organic farming land, accounting for approximately 4% of the country’s total agricultural land.
  41. Number of organic producers: India ranks first globally in terms of the total number of organic producers, with over 4.43 million farmers engaged in organic farming practices in 2022.
  42. Growth rate: The organic food market in India has been growing steadily, with a compound annual growth rate of around 25%.
  43. Export market: India is one of the largest exporters of organic products globally. In 2019-2020, the country exported organic products worth around $1 billion. In 2022 itself India exported $700 million worth of organic product exports .
  44. Crop diversity: Organic farming in India covers a wide range of crops, including cereals, pulses, oilseeds, spices, fruits, and vegetables.
  45. AFSPA 1958
  46. Relevance of this topic: This act has regained prominence since the violence in Manipur and Arunachal Pradesh
  47. Previous year question: 1.Analyze internal security threats and trans border crimes along Myanmar, Bangladesh and Pakistan borders including LOC. Also discuss the role played by various security forces in this regard.(GS-3 2020)
  48. 2. What are the determinants of left- wing extremism in eastern part of India? What strategy should government of India, civil administration and security forces adopt to counter the threats in the affected areas?(GS-3 2020)
  49. The Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act (AFSPA) is an act enacted in India in 1958. It grants special powers to the armed forces deployed in areas declared as “disturbed areas” by the central or state government. These areas typically face significant security challenges, such as insurgency, terrorism, or internal disturbances.
  50. Under AFSPA, the armed forces are granted enhanced powers to maintain law and order, conduct operations, arrest without a warrant, and even use force, including lethal force, against those involved in insurgency or violence.
  51. The act also provides legal protection and immunity to armed forces personnel for their actions taken under AFSPA, unless there is a proven violation of human rights.
  52. However, AFSPA has faced widespread criticism and controversy. Human rights organizations and activists have raised concerns about the act’s impact on civil liberties and the potential for human rights abuses. There have been allegations of extrajudicial killings, torture, and arbitrary detentions by the armed forces operating under AFSPA.
  53. The act’s provisions granting immunity to armed forces personnel have been a subject of particular criticism. Critics argue that this immunity creates an environment of impunity, where abuses can occur without accountability. They advocate for the repeal or amendment of AFSPA to ensure accountability and protect human rights.
  54. The Indian government has periodically reviewed AFSPA and its application in different regions. The decision to continue or revoke the act in specific areas rests with the respective state or central government, based on the assessment of the security situation.
  55. E-pharmacy sector in India
  56. Relevance of this topic: Lack of regulatory clarity has been imperling India’s online pharmacy sector.
  57. Previous year question: How is the government of India protecting traditional knowledge of medicine form patenting by pharmaceutical companies?(GS-3 2019)
  58. The e-pharmacy sector in India has seen significant growth in recent years, with a CAGR of about 22%. A  E-pharmacies are online platforms that allow customers to purchase medicines and healthcare products from the convenience of their homes. This sector has gained popularity due to factors such as convenience, accessibility, and competitive pricing.
  59. E-pharmacies offer a wide range of medicines, including prescription drugs, over-the-counter medications, and healthcare products. Customers can browse through a vast catalog of products, compare prices, and place orders online. The medicines are delivered directly to the customer’s doorstep, saving them time and effort.
  60. One of the key advantages of e-pharmacies is the accessibility they provide, especially to customers in remote areas or those with limited mobility. By eliminating the need to physically visit a brick-and-mortar pharmacy, e-pharmacies ensure that people have access to essential medicines regardless of their geographical location.
  61. Additionally, e-pharmacies often offer competitive pricing and discounts, making medicines more affordable for customers. They also provide detailed information about the medicines, including dosage instructions and potential side effects, ensuring that customers can make informed decisions.
  62. However, it is important to note that the e-pharmacy sector in India is regulated by the government to ensure patient safety and data privacy. The government has implemented guidelines and regulations to govern the operations of e-pharmacies, including requirements for obtaining licenses and adhering to quality standards.
  63. The e-pharmacy sector in India has emerged as a convenient and accessible alternative for purchasing medicines and healthcare products. As India is world’s largest supplier of generic medicine ,which accounts for 20% of world wide supply.
  64. Aquaculture sector
  65. Relevance of this topic: Coastal aquaculture authority bill to boost productivity. Through this amendment the sector is expecting a productivity increase from present 8.7 lakh to nearly 20 lakh in next 5 years.
  66.       Previous year question: “ Economic growth in the recent past has been led by increase in labour productivity”. Explain this statement. Suggest the growth pattern that will lead to creation of more jobs without compromising labour productivity.(GS -3 2022)
  67. Production: India is one of the largest producers of fish and shrimp through aquaculture. In 2019-2020, the total fish production from aquaculture reached approximately 7.73 million metric tons, accounting for around 66% of the country’s total fish production. In 2022 this sector has added around 10 lakh tonnes of fish.
  68. Shrimp Production: Shrimp farming is a prominent segment of India’s aquaculture industry. In 2022 the country produced around 3.4 lakh metric tons of shrimp, with the major producing states being Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengal.
  69. Exports: India is a major exporter of seafood, including aquaculture products. In the fiscal year 2019-2020, India exported seafood worth approximately $6.73 billion, with frozen shrimp being the primary export item. In 2022 it increased to $8.09 billion.
  70. Employment: The aquaculture sector provides employment opportunities, particularly in rural areas. It is estimated that over 1.4 million people are engaged in various aspects of aquaculture, including farming, processing, and trading.
  71. Government Initiatives: The Indian government has implemented several initiatives to support the growth of the aquaculture sector, such as the Blue Revolution scheme, Pradhan mantri matsya sampadhya yojna. This scheme aims to enhance fish and shrimp production through the development of infrastructure, technology adoption, and capacity building.
  72. The National Quantum Mission
  73. Relevance of this topic: Indian government approves national quatum mission worth 6000 crores.
  74. Previous year question: What are the different elements of cyber security? keeping in view the challenges in cyber security , examine the extent to which India has successfully developed a comprehensive national cyber security strategy.(GS-3 2022).
  75. The National Quantum Mission is an initiative by the Government of India aimed at harnessing the potential of quantum science and technology for various applications.
  76. The mission seeks to establish India as a global leader in the field of quantum technology and promote research, development, and deployment of quantum technologies in areas such as communications, computing, and sensing.
  77. The objectives of the National Quantum Mission include developing indigenous capabilities in quantum computing, quantum communication, quantum cryptography, and quantum simulation. It aims to foster collaborations between academia, industry, and government agencies to drive innovation and create a thriving quantum ecosystem in the country.
  78. The mission is expected to have a significant impact on various sectors, including healthcare, defense, finance, and cyber security. It will promote research and development, attract talent, and facilitate knowledge exchange in the field of quantum science and technology.
  79. Recently The National Quantum Mission got cabinet approval of about 6000 crores.
  80. The National Logistic Portal marine
  81. Relevance of this topic: Recently the ministry of shipping has launched the Sagar setu mobile app of National Logistic Portal marine.
  82.      Previous year question: Why is PPP required in infrastructural projects? Examine the role of PPP model in the redevelopment of Railway stations in India.(GS-3 2022)
  83. The National Logistic Portal for Marine is an initiative by the Government of India aimed at streamlining and digitizing the logistics operations in the marine sector. The portal serves as a centralized platform for various stakeholders involved in maritime logistics, including shipping lines, freight forwarders, port operators, and customs authorities.
  84. The objective of the portal is to enhance efficiency, transparency, and ease of doing business in the marine logistics sector. It provides features such as online documentation, real-time tracking of vessels and cargo, electronic payment systems, and integration with other logistics platforms.
  85. The National Logistic Portal for Marine enables seamless coordination and information exchange between different entities, reducing paperwork, time, and costs associated with logistics operations. It also helps in improving the overall competitiveness of the marine sector and promotes India’s position as a preferred maritime logistics hub.
  86. Thermobaric bomb
  87. Relevance of this topic: Recently human rights group has accused that Myanmar’s military has been using thermobaric bomb.
  88. Previous year question: The Nobel Prize in physics of 2014 was jointly awarded to Akasaki, Amano and Nakamura for the invention of blue LED in 1990. How has this invention impacted the everyday life of human beings?(GS-3 2021)
  89. A thermobaric bomb, also known as a fuel-air explosive (FAE), is a type of explosive weapon that utilizes a combination of fuel and atmospheric oxygen to create a powerful blast.
  90. Unlike traditional explosives that primarily rely on the rapid release of energy from a chemical reaction, thermobaric bombs work by dispersing a cloud of fuel into the target area. When ignited, the fuel-air mixture creates a highly explosive vapor cloud that can be ignited with devastating effect.
  91. Upon detonation, the thermobaric bomb produces a shockwave and a fireball that can cause extensive damage and casualties. The blast wave and subsequent fire can be particularly destructive in enclosed spaces, such as buildings or tunnels, due to the pressure and thermal effects.
  92. Thermobaric bombs are primarily used in military applications, where their ability to collapse structures, clear bunkers, or neutralize enemy personnel in fortified positions is advantageous. However, it is important to note that the use of such weapons is regulated under international humanitarian law, and their use against civilian populations or in a manner that causes indiscriminate harm is prohibited.
  93. .
  94. The Indian semiconductor industry
  95. Relevance of this topic: Domestic elecornic manufacturing rises to 8.25 lakh core. 1st made in india semiconductor chips to come by December 2024.
  96. Previous year question: What do you understand by nanotechnology and how is it helping in health sector?(GS-3 2020)
  97. How is science interwoven deeply with our lives? What are the striking changes in agriculture triggered off by the science- based technologies?( GS-3 2020)
  98. Market Size: The Indian semiconductor market is estimated to reach USD 32.35 billion by 2025, growing at a CAGR of 10.1% from 2020 to 2025.
  99. Export Revenue: India’s semiconductor export revenue reached approximately USD 11.5 billion in the fiscal year 2020-2021. In 2022 it stands at $27 billion.
  100. Design and R&D Centers: Several multinational semiconductor companies have established design and research and development centers in India, including companies like Intel, Qualcomm, and Texas Instruments.
  101. Manufacturing Facilities: India currently has a limited number of semiconductor manufacturing facilities, but there are plans to set up semiconductor labs in the country to boost domestic production.
  102. Talent Pool: India boasts a large pool of skilled engineers and researchers, which has been instrumental in the growth of the semiconductor industry. The country has over 1200 semiconductor design companies and around 350 fabless companies.
  104. GDP potential , agricultural economy, sustainable living, impact assessment, border area management, capital formation, cyber crimes, liberalization, hazard zoning, mitigation, organized crime etc.

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *